As biocompatible metallic materials, titanium and its alloys have been widely used in the orthopedic field due to their superior strength, low density, and ease of processing. However, further improvement in biological response is still required for rapid osseointegration. Here, various Ti surface-treatment technologies were applied: hydroxyapatite blasting, sand blasting and acid etching, anodic oxidation, and micro-arc oxidation. The surface characteristics of specimens subjected to these techniques were analyzed in terms of structure, elemental composition, and wettability. The adhesion strength of the coating layer was also assessed for the coated specimens. Biocompatibility was compared via tests of in vitro attachment and proliferation of pre-osteoblast cells.